Protein is an essential nutrient that our body needs for growth and maintenance.
They are the building blocks of muscle tissue and also serve as precursors for nucleic acids, hormones, vitamins, and other integral molecules.
No doubt, protein as a macronutrient is essential and should be consumed in adequate quantities daily, especially if you are an active adult.
However, it’s not just the quantity of protein that matters, but the quality as well.
More so, is the protein plant-based or animal-based!
Some experts suggest that for muscle growth, animal-based protein is superior to plant-based protein.
Whereas vegans and vegetarians disagree with the above statement!
Let’s find out.
In this article, we shall explore the following:
- Proteins and Amino Acids
- Complete, Incomplete and Complementary Proteins
- Is Plant Protein inferior to Animal Protein when it comes to building muscle?
- Is Plant Protein better than Animal Protein when it comes to your overall health?
- Conclusion and my recommendations
Protein and Amino Acids
Proteins are made up of amino acids, which are like the building blocks of the human body.
When you eat proteins, your body breaks it down into its constituent parts—amino acids.
Twenty different amino acids join together in various combinations to make all types of proteins.
Our bodies can’t make some of these amino acids; hence they are known as essential amino acids. These nine essential amino acids we need to get from our diets.
Please note that Histidine is the only essential amino acid that is essential for infants!
Whereas there are eleven amino acids which can be manufactured by the body and are termed as Non-Essential Amino acids, and there is no need to get them from your diet.
In terms of diet, protein sources are categorized according to how many of the essential amino acids they provide.
A complete protein source is one that provides all of the essential amino acids. Complete proteins are also referred to as high-quality proteins.
ALL animal-based food sources such as meat, poultry, fish, milk, eggs, and cheese are complete protein sources.
An incomplete protein is one that is low in one or more of the essential amino acids. A majority of plant-based food sources such as grains, lentils, and rice are incomplete proteins.
The only complete plant-based foods are Soy, Quinoa, and Tofu.
Complementary proteins are two or more incomplete protein sources that together provide adequate amounts of all essential amino acids.
For example, rice contains low amounts of the essential amino acid lysine and high doses of the essential amino acid methionine; however, dry beans contain greater amounts of lysine and lesser amounts of methionine.
Together, these two food sources can provide adequate amounts of all the essential amino acids required by the human body.
So a point to remember is that you need a variety of plant-based protein foods.
This is to ensure that your body is getting all the essential amino acids as most plant-based proteins are deficient in one or two essential amino acids.
A huge and popular myth which you may have come across is this:
Do I need to combine specific plant-based protein sources to ensure that the given meal has all the amino acids?
The answer is No!
It’s ok to eat a variety of plant-based protein foods at any point in time during the day and not necessarily in the same meal.1<https://health.clevelandclinic.org/do-i-need-to-worry-about-eating-complete-proteins>
Plant Protein Vs Animal Protein: Which is better for muscle growth?
When it comes to comparing Plant protein Vs Animal protein in regards to muscle growth, we need to look at a few methods that determine the protein quality of a given source.
The two popular methods are:
- Biological Value (BV)
- Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)
Let’s briefly understand each method and understand which is the best method out of them all from a practical standpoint.
Biological Value (BV)
Biological Value (BV) is a scale of measurement which is used to determine what percentage of a given nutrient is utilized by the body.
This scale is most frequently used for proteins. Proteins, as we are aware, are one of the significant sources of nitrogen in the human body.
The BV of a protein is the amount of nitrogen retained in the body divided by the amount of nitrogen absorbed from that protein.
The formula of BV of protein = (Nr /Na)* 100
Where N= Nitrogen
r= nitrogen that is retained in the body to be used by the cells and tissues.
a= absorbed into the body by the digestive system.
A BV value of 100 would indicate that a given protein has been utilized fully by the body, and none was lost.
The drawback of this method is that BV of a protein source is affected by many variables like calorie intake, the recent diet of the test subject, age, sex, and so forth.
For example, as protein intake goes down, the BV of that protein goes up.
Milk protein has a BV of 70 with a protein intake of 0.5g/kg and a BV of 100 with a protein intake of 0.2g/kg.
This does not mean that one should lower their protein intake to increase the BV of a given food source.
The overall nitrogen intake will still be higher at high protein levels, i.e., 70% of 0.5g/kg is 0.35g/kg, which is more than 0.20g/kg (100% of 0.2g/kg)!
And it’s reasonable to conclude that BV is only useful at very low protein levels.
Exercise and workouts can also have a positive effect on nitrogen retention, thus giving a false and a higher BV.
Another limitation is that it assumes that protein is the only source of nitrogen in the human body, which is not true. This method just gives a rough overall estimate.
The two other methods which are similar to BV are Net Protein Utilization (NPU) and Protein Efficiency Ratio (PER).
BV method is superior to these methods, and therefore there is no point discussing these.
However, a method called PDCAAS replaced the BV scale of measurement in 1993 as it takes a protein source’s amino acid profile into account as well2<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Protein_Digestibility_Corrected_Amino_Acid_Score>
Let’s briefly discuss it.
Protein Digestibility Corrected Amino Acid Score (PDCAAS)
PDCAAS rating evaluates the quality of a protein-based on the needs of humans. (the BV and PER were based on the amino acid requirements for growing rats)
The amino acid profile that is taken as a reference is that of a two to five-year-old (who are the most demanding age group nutritionally speaking). See the table below.
The digestibility of a given protein is also factored for.
The highest possible PDCAAS score is 1.0. This means that a given protein source with this rating will provide 100% or more of the essential amino acid required.
The limitation of the PDCAAS score is that since it takes 1.0 as the highest rating, a protein source with a rating higher than 1.0 is rounded off back to 1.0, causing it to under-represent its true protein quality score.
Another limitation of PDCAAS is that it overestimates the protein quality.
PDCAAS analyses the feces, and therefore it does not take into consideration where the proteins have been digested.
In simple words, PDCAAS looks at how much protein was absorbed in both the small and large intestines.
Once the protein crosses the small intestine and enters the large intestine, most of the protein absorbed here is unlikely to be used for protein synthesis and is mainly food for the microbiome.
To combat this limitation, in 2013, a new scale was proposed called the DIAAS3<https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digestible_Indispensable_Amino_Acid_Score>, which looks at how much protein was absorbed after it has left the small intestine.
Now, let’s see the essential amino acid requirement for preschool children aged 1-3 years, which is used as a reference point for the PDCAAS scale.
Adults’ requirements of essential amino acids will be less that of growing children.
The table below directly compares the adult amino acid requirement with that of the common protein foods and whey:
Table Source: Examine.com
Now, it is quite clear from the tables above that the essential amino acid profile of animal-based proteins is more than sufficient for adults.
However, when it comes to vegetarian proteins, like soy, bean, legumes, and rice, some of the essential amino acids are less than the adult requirement.
This re-emphasizes the fact that combining vegetable protein is very important to get the minimum requirement of daily essential amino acids.
For example, rice is deficient in lysine.
Legumes are deficient in methionine.
When you combine them, these deficiencies are not there anymore.
Therefore, the most valuable tip for a vegan/vegetarian from this article is that you should combine two or more sources of proteins to ensure that all essential amino acids are covered in sufficient quantities.
When it comes to muscle building, the concept that BCAAs (particularly leucine) has a special ability to trigger muscle protein synthesis has been going on for decades.
A multi-million dollar industry exists just selling BCAA’s in the supplement form—pills and powders!
BCAA’s as you probably would be aware, are leucine, valine, and isoleucine.
Does this mean that if you include more BCAAs by choosing animal-based protein in your diet, it’ll stimulate a higher muscle protein synthesis and therefore help you build more muscle?
Not according to Robert R. Wolfe, whose study was published in the Journal of the International Society of Sports Nutrition titled: Branched-chain amino acids and muscle protein synthesis in humans: myth or reality?4<https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0184-9>
In this 2017 study, the author was clear about the fact that all the studies which concluded that BCAAs have a special ability to increase muscle mass via stimulating more muscle protein synthesis were done on rats!
And rat studies have limited relevance to human responses, he further adds.
Moreover, there are very few studies5<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2174312?dopt=Abstract>6<https://www.metabolismjournal.com/article/0026-0495(95)90047-0/pdf> ever done on humans, and both of them concluded a surprising fact rather-
That BCAA infusion decreased the rate of muscle protein synthesis and the rate of muscle protein turnover.
The conclusion of the author was:
When all evidence and theory are considered together, it is reasonable to conclude that there is no credible evidence that ingestion of a dietary supplement of BCAAs alone results in a physiologically-significant stimulation of muscle protein.
What about the individual effects of leucine on increased muscle growth?
Well, there are some studies that concluded that leucine is not only a precursor for muscle protein synthesis but also plays a role as a regulator of intracellular signaling pathways that are involved in the process of protein synthesis.7<http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&dopt=Abstract&list_uids=16365096>
Another study concluded that leucine is the key factor responsible for the anabolic properties of a meal and maximizations of muscle protein synthesis.8<https://www.researchgate.net/publication/288150322_Optimal_protein_intake_to_maximize_muscle_protein_synthesis_Examinations_of_optimal_meal_protein_intake_and_frequency_for_athletes>
A few more studies indicate that animal protein has a greater ability to enhance muscle protein synthesis and support muscle mass than plant-based proteins.9<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30621129>10<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22698458>
However, there are a few studies that conclude otherwise11<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28444456>12<https://jissn.biomedcentral.com/articles/10.1186/s12970-017-0184-9>
One drawback of studies related to leucine is that almost all studies are done using supplements instead of whole foods.13<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6732186/>14<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6463337>15<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6544056/>
At the same time, it is not clear whether the overall increase in protein intake of the subjects was responsible for the increase in muscle growth, or was it just because of additional supplementation of the branched-chain amino acid leucine.
Bottom line, looking at all evidence, the amino acid leucine may be responsible for anabolic signaling and thereby increasing muscle protein synthesis.
However, more research is needed to make conclusions about whether the higher percentage of BCAAs in animal protein (especially the leucine content) is responsible for additional muscle growth when compared with plant-based protein.
Plant Protein Vs. Animal Protein: Which is better for your overall health?
Proteins, when consumed through an animal-based protein or plant-based protein, all come with ‘extra’ baggage.
This ‘extra’ baggage can be either beneficial or harmful for the human body.
Now, I want to explicitly relate ‘extra’ baggage with two nutrients or compounds:
- Micronutrients. This ‘extra’ baggage is good for your health
- Unwanted Compounds like hormones, antibiotics, etc. which causes harm to our body and destroys our health. This ‘extra’ baggage is bad for your health.
Health has always been my number one priority alongside changes in body composition.
After all, what’s the point of looking good when you don’t feel good?
Animal-Based Proteins + Good ‘Extra-Baggage’.
Let’s first discuss the beneficial ‘extra’ baggage that is abundant in animal proteins.
Zinc: The RDA for Zinc is between 8-11mg/day. Meats are very high in Zinc. Dairy products also have adequate amounts of Zinc.
If you are a vegetarian/vegan (who does not eat eggs and dairy products), then the chances are that you may be deficient in the mineral zinc.
Even though legumes like chickpeas, daal, etc. have adequate amounts of Zinc in them, they also contain phytates.
Phytates are antinutrients that inhibit the absorption of Zinc.
This means Zinc is not absorbed effectively from legumes.
Suggestions for Vegans and Vegetarians to increase Zinc in their diet:
-Focus on eating a handful of nuts (including cashews), which have a good amount of Zinc.
-Legumes like dal, rajma (kidney beans), chole (chickpeas) should be soaked in water, better yet a few varieties like mung bean, channa should be sprouted for increased absorption of not only Zinc but other minerals as well.
Vitamin D3: Even though most experts claim that one gets enough Vitamin D from animal foods, I disagree.
Yes, it’s true that animal foods have a small amount of Vitamin-D, which includes eggs and dairy.
However, the daily requirement for Vitamin-D is pretty high, and direct exposure to sunlight is the only way to get the optimal dose.
Vitamin D article (please read this important article that will help you optimize your Vitamin-D3 levels.
Vitamin B-12: This Vitamin is essential for the human body. It’s mainly found in animal foods such as beef liver, salmon, milk, and eggs.
A large percentage of vegetarians and vegans may be deficient in this Vitamin as no plant food contains this Vitamin.
Ideally, if you are a strict vegetarian or a vegan, it’s best to supplement your diet with Vitamin B 12.
Omega-3s: The benefits of Omega-3 are immense.
For starters, they reduce inflammation and might help lower the risk of chronic diseases such as heart disease, cancer, and arthritis. You can read the complete article here.
Now, Plant food such as flaxseeds and walnuts contain an omega-3 fat called alpha-linolenic acid.
It is easier for fish to convert alpha-linolenic acid from algae and other sea plants into EPA and DHA; humans can only do so to a minimal degree.
Although ALA is not harmful, as vegans or vegetarians, you cannot get enough Omega-3’s in your diet, and I do recommend a high-quality supplement like Krill Oil to boost your Omega-3 levels.
Ok, so these were the beneficial ‘extra’ baggage you get when you eat your protein from animal sources.
Please note the purpose of the above section is to inform all your lovely vegetarians and vegans out there that it’s very much possible to easily get all these nutrients if you eat a variety of plant-based foods, including supplements when required.
Now, let’s discuss the harmful ‘extra’ baggage that comes along with animal-based meats.
Animal-Based Proteins + Bad ‘Extra-Baggage’.
First, let me make a clear distinction between fresh meats and processed meats.
Processed meats include and are not limited to ham, beef jerky, sausages, salami, pepperoni, hotdogs, smoked meats, and canned meats.
Whereas fresh meats are meats in their raw form like beef, pork, lamb, chicken, etc.
Meats are processed to enhance flavor and increase shelf life.
The most commonly used preservatives to improve the flavor and the appearance of meats are Nitrates.
Nitrates also help prevent the bacteria inside the meat to grow and gives the meat the pinkish-red color! (which obviously makes it very attractive for the buyers)
Let me quickly give you a biochemistry lesson on Nitrates and Nitrites and let’s truly understand if they are as harmful as stated by the conventional wisdom.
Nitrates and nitrites are chemical compounds that contain oxygen and nitrogen atoms.
Please do note most of the nitrates and nitrites that you consume are from your vegetables and not from processed meats!
Carrot, green leafy vegetables, etc. contain these compounds. The organic vegetables will obviously have less of these compounds as they are not sprayed with nitrate fertilizers.
Most of the nitrites are not consumed directly but are converted from nitrates by the action of bacteria found in our mouth.
Now, you’ll be surprised to know that nitrates and nitrites are actually beneficial for us.
This is because of their ability to contribute to nitric oxide formation.
NO2 gas is beneficial, especially for older adults, as it helps dilate blood vessels and lower blood pressure besides having many other health benefits.
However, the nitrates found in processed meats combine with the protein in the meat to form nitrosamines.
High-heat cooking can also cause nitrites to form into nitrosamines.
Nitrosamines are carcinogenic compounds that increase the risk of certain types of cancer like bowel cancer
Barbecuing, frying, etc. can also produce other carcinogenic chemicals such as heterocyclic aromatic amines (HAA) and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH), which increases the risk of cancers.17<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15513831>18<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/10944558>
Since there is very little protein in vegetables, nitrosamines can hardly be formed from nitrates consumed via vegetables.
Furthermore, other nutrients, like Vitamin C, fiber, etc. which are abundant in vegetables, are known to reduce the formation of nitrosamine.
The problem with processed meats does not end with Nitrates/Nitrites.
The added salts are also a big concern in these products.
It’s common knowledge that to increase shelf life, a high amount of salt and/or other preservatives are added to fresh food items in this case meats.
Now, there is clear evidence that sodium chloride (salt) is known to increase blood pressure and, therefore, the risk of heart disease.
On average, processed meat contains four times more sodium and 50% more nitrate preservatives than fresh meats.19<https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/processed-meats-unprocessed-heart-disease-diabetes>
A study20<https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/processed-meats-unprocessed-heart-disease-diabetes> conducted by the Harvard School of Public Health concluded that eating processed meats such as canned meats, sausages, bacon, etc. was associated with a 42% higher risk of heart disease and a 19% higher risk of type-2 diabetes.
The surprising result was that the researchers did not find any evidence of a higher risk of CHD and type-2 diabetes among individuals eating unprocessed red meat such as beef, pork, or lamb.
Renata Micha et al.–authors of this systematic review and meta-analysis reviewed nearly 1600 studies, which included a total of 1,218,380 individuals.
They concluded that:
“To lower the risk of heart attacks and diabetes, people should consider which types of meats they are eating. Processed meats such as bacon, salami, sausages, hot dogs, and processed deli meats may be the most important to avoid.”
This study21https://www.hsph.harvard.edu/news/press-releases/processed-meats-unprocessed-heart-disease-diabetes> was supported by the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation/World Health Organization Global Burden of Diseases, Risk Factors, and Injuries Study; the National Heart, Lung, and Blood Foundation, National Institutes of Health.
In another article published on BBC titled: Processed meat, ‘early death’ link concluded that diets high in processed meat were linked to cardiovascular disease, cancer, and early deaths!22<https://www.bbc.com/news/health-21682779>
The study was 13 years long and included 10 European countries.
Yet another study23<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29274927>in the UK followed up 262, 195 women over seven years concluded that consumption of processed meat, but not red meat, may increase the risk of breast cancer.
Yet another study24<https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20479151>came to the same conclusion that the processed meats and not red meats are associated with a higher incidence of CHD and diabetes mellitus.
I like to believe that red meats (which are fresh meats) which contain a lot of saturated fats are not bad for you as touted by conventional wisdom.
You can read the related article here:
Moving on, it’s pretty clear that a non-vegetarian should focus more on fresh meats instead of processed meats.
Another fact concerning meats is whether the meat comes from CAFO’s or from pasture-raised farms.
Unfortunately, ninety-nine percent of meat, dairy, and eggs in the US come from factory farms or CAFO’s —Confined Feeding Animal Operations. The situation is the same for all the fish sourced.25<https://www.livekindly.co/99-animal-products-factory-farms>
Animals from CAFO’s are living in poor conditions. To increase their survival rates, they are pumped with antibiotics. They are also fed hormones to increase their rate of growth.
After all, meats are sold on a per kg basis. And faster an animal can grow and heavier the meat bigger the profits for companies!
Besides these issues, factory farms are one of the biggest contributors to climate change.
I did a project in my Masters titled: How Pasture-Raised Farming Can Save The Environment.
Some of the interesting facts that I discussed in this project:
- Pasture-raised products are nutritionally superior to grain-fed factory animals. They are low in fat and calories.
- Pasture-raised products are high in omega-3’s, vitamin e, and are free from antibiotics, hormones, and other diseases like E-coli.
- Meat from grass-fed animals requires only one calorie of fossil-fuel to produce two calories of food as opposed to grain-fed animals (in CAFO’s) that require 35 calories of fossil fuel.
Table: Effect of Global Warming: Pasture-Raised Farming Vs. Factory Farming
In conclusion, pasture-raised farming does no harm to the environment and is a great example of sustainable agriculture.
If you want to find out more about how we can feed 10 billion people by 2050, without destroying the planet, I would like to watch this video:
The bottom line, if you are a regular meat-eater and also consume eggs, and drink milk, I strongly urge you to be conscious of where your animal-based protein is sourced from.
Not only for the sake of the environment but better health for yourself and your family.
Try and go organic when it comes to buying your fruits and vegetables. You wi
If you don’t have the budget to go all organic, then prioritize the items.
For example, there are a selective few veggies that are heavily sprayed.
Plant-Based protein + The ‘Good’ Extra Baggage
Micronutrients that are missing from Animal foods
Fiber: There is no fiber in animal foods, and therefore it becomes imperative to eat plant-based foods such as fruits, vegetables, whole grains, oats, etc. to get your daily dose of fiber.
Optimal fiber intake for men is 35-40g/day. For women, fiber intake is 25-30g/day.
Benefits of fiber are immense and include reduced risk of heart disease, lower risk of colon cancer.
Fiber also helps with increased satiety that leads to a feeling of fullness, which is an important factor when it comes to weight loss.
Vitamin C: Vitamin C is mostly found in fruits and vegetables like tomatoes, kiwi, oranges, papaya, etc. A few animal foods like beef liver, oysters contain Vitamin C, but that’s about it.
The requirement for Vitamin C is around 65mg per day. But optimal intake could be as high as 500mg to 1g/day.
The excess Vitamin C is excreted through urine. High doses could be beneficial like helping you boost immunity and ward off common cold etc.
Conclusion and My Recommendations
After analyzing scores of scientific references, let me conclude by saying this:
Your results are mostly dependent on your total protein intake.
If your total protein intake is optimal and within the range of (1.2-2)g/kg of body weight per day, then protein quality (animal or plant-based sources) will not matter much!
Find out your exact protein requirement based on the type of activity that you do.
Try and be consistent with consuming close to ~1.6g/kg of protein (or slightly more but < 2g) if your goal is to gain weight and muscle size.
Then comes your dietary preference.
Recommendations for Vegetarians and Vegans
If you are predominantly a vegetarian, there is no need to shift to animal-based proteins just because a few studies have concluded that they are better.
The studies have their limitations, and what truly brings amazing results is being consistent.
How do you stay consistent with your diet?
You eat what you love to eat, what your culture and preferences dictate!
So, if you are a vegetarian and include dairy and even eggs in your diet, then there should be no issue in getting all the essential amino acids, including enough leucine and other BCAAs for optimal muscle growth.
Being a vegan or a pure vegetarian, I would recommend eating a variety of foods that are protein-based on a daily basis.
Protein combining is very important to ensure a steady supply of essential amino acids as our bodies cannot manufacture them.
Some examples of food sources high in proteins are:
- Daal (all varieties)
- Beans (all varieties)
- Nuts (all types)
- Seeds like Chia seeds and Flaxseeds
- Vegetables (both cooked and raw, all varieties)
- Whole wheat (roti etc.)
- Rice (Ideally brown or any unprocessed variety)
Lastly, it’s a good idea to supplement your diet with Vitamin B12 if you are a vegan.
Vitamin B12 is abundantly available in whole milk and whole eggs. If you are a vegetarian who includes these animal-based foods, then you are fine.
But for vegans, supplementing with Vitamin B12 is essential.
Recommendations for Non- Vegetarians
If you are a strict non-vegetarian, then enough high-quality protein should not be an issue with you.
Just ensure your total protein intake is within this range.
However, as mentioned above, the source of animal proteins i.e., livestock, are treated badly and when compared with the grass-fed variety are inferior and include other compounds like antibiotics, hormones, etc. which overtime can be very harmful to your body and may lead to a variety of diseases.
So I would suggest three things:
1. Do your best to choose meats, milk, and eggs from the highest quality sources, ideally from grass-fed sources.
Yes, grass-fed animal foods will cost you more, but then if you prioritize your health, it’s possible to re-adjust your budget to accommodate this monetary increase.
The availability of grass-fed animal foods could be an issue, and you would need to do a thorough search.
If you are persistent, I am optimistic you would be able to find something superior to what you are currently consuming.
If you cannot find grass-fed meats then at least choose to go for organic meats (that have no added hormones or antibiotics in them)
2. Choose fresh meats over processed meats like ham, beef jerky, salami, canned meats, hotdogs, etc. There is clear evidence that processed meats are bad for you and can increase the risk of cardiovascular diseases.
However, it’s ok to have a hot-dog or any other form of processed meats once in a while.
3. If you have been a strict non-vegetarian and hardly eat any plants, then the chances are that your diet would be deficient in fiber, Vitamin C, and E.
My recommendation to you guys is to ensure that you eat generous servings of green vegetables, ideally in the raw form, with your meals.
I would recommend at least 500g to 1kg of raw vegetables and fresh fruits every day in your diet.
This will ensure optimal fiber intake. These plant-based foods will also provide you with much needed Vitamin C & E.
Do also include fruits that contain Vitamin C like oranges, guava, papaya, etc.
In addition to this, it’s an excellent idea to start embracing plant-based foods at least twice or even thrice a week for variety 🙂
I promise you that this won’t slow down your muscle growth (if that’s what your aim is), and the added variety may just be the thing you were looking for!
What do you think about this article?
Have any questions or queries, let me know in the comments section below!
Sources & References [ + ]